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hardware storage Howto SMART

Documentation : https://www.smartmontools.org/wiki/TocDoc

SMART (Self-Monitoring, Analysis and Reporting Technology) est intégrée à la plupart des disques durs pour avoir des indicateurs de diagnostic. Sous Linux/Unix, Smartmontools est l’outil pour exploiter la technologie SMART, notamment avec la commande smartctl et le démon smartd.

Installation

# apt install smartmontools

$ /usr/sbin/smartctl -V
smartctl 6.6 2016-05-31 r4324 [x86_64-linux-4.9.0-4-amd64] (local build)
[...]
smartmontools release 6.6 dated 2016-05-07 at 11:17:46 UTC
smartmontools SVN rev 4324 dated 2016-05-31 at 20:45:50
smartmontools build host: x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
smartmontools build with: C++98, GCC 5.4.0 20160609
[...]

# systemctl status smartd
● smartd.service - Self Monitoring and Reporting Technology (SMART) Daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/smartd.service; enabled; vendor preset: enabled)
     Docs: man:smartd(8)
           man:smartd.conf(5)

Utilisation basique

Quelques exemples de commande de base :

# smartctl --scan
# smartctl -a /dev/sda
# smartctl -a /dev/sda | egrep 'Serial|Error'
# smartctl -a /dev/sda | grep Power_On_Hours
# smartctl -a /dev/sda | grep Power_Cycle_Count
# smartctl -a /dev/sda -d megaraid,0
# smartctl -i /dev/sg0

smartctl

On peut s’assurer que toutes les fonctionnalités SMART sont activées sur un disque via :

# smartctl -s on -o on -S on /dev/sda

Lister les disques

Sur une machine avec un seul disque :

# smartctl --scan

/dev/sda -d scsi # /dev/sda, SCSI device

Sur une machine avec du RAID hardware :

# smartctl --scan

/dev/hdd -d ata # /dev/hdd, ATA device
/dev/sda -d scsi # /dev/sda, SCSI device
/dev/sdb -d scsi # /dev/sdb, SCSI device
/dev/sdc -d scsi # /dev/sdc, SCSI device
/dev/bus/0 -d megaraid,0 # /dev/bus/0 [megaraid_disk_00], SCSI device
/dev/bus/0 -d megaraid,1 # /dev/bus/0 [megaraid_disk_01], SCSI device
/dev/bus/0 -d megaraid,2 # /dev/bus/0 [megaraid_disk_02], SCSI device
/dev/bus/0 -d megaraid,3 # /dev/bus/0 [megaraid_disk_03], SCSI device
/dev/bus/0 -d megaraid,4 # /dev/bus/0 [megaraid_disk_04], SCSI device
/dev/bus/0 -d megaraid,5 # /dev/bus/0 [megaraid_disk_05], SCSI device
/dev/bus/0 -d megaraid,6 # /dev/bus/0 [megaraid_disk_06], SCSI device

Voir les informations d’un disque

L’option -i permet d’afficher les informations sur un disque :

# smartctl -i /dev/sda

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family:     Seagate Laptop Thin HDD
Device Model:     ST500LM021-1KJ152
Serial Number:    XXXXXXXX
LU WWN Device Id: 5 000c50 09cbac333
Firmware Version: 0005SDM1
User Capacity:    500,107,862,016 bytes [500 GB]
Sector Sizes:     512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical
Rotation Rate:    7200 rpm
Form Factor:      2.5 inches
Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is:   ATA8-ACS T13/1699-D revision 4
SATA Version is:  SATA 3.0, 6.0 Gb/s (current: 6.0 Gb/s)
Local Time is:    Tue Nov 28 16:19:49 2017 CET
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

L’option -l error permet d’afficher les éventuelles erreurs d’un disque :

# smartctl -l error /dev/sda

=== START OF SMART DATA SECTION ===
Error Information (NVMe Log 0x01, max 64 entries)
Num   ErrCount  SQId   CmdId  Status  PELoc          LBA  NSID    VS
  0        120     0  0x0008  0x4004      -            0     0     -
  1        119     0  0x0018  0x4004  0x02c            0     0     -
  2        118     0  0x0017  0x4004  0x02c            0     0     -
  3        117     0  0x0008  0x4004      -            0     0     -
  4        116     0  0x0018  0x4004  0x02c            0     0     -
  5        115     0  0x0017  0x4004  0x02c            0     0     -
  6        114     0  0x0008  0x4004      -            0     0     -
  7        113     0  0x0018  0x4004  0x02c            0     0     -
  8        112     0  0x0017  0x4004  0x02c            0     0     -
  9        111     0  0x0008  0x4004      -            0     0     -
 10        110     0  0x0008  0x4004      -            0     0     -
 11        109     0  0x0008  0x4004  0x02c            0     0     -
 12        108     0  0x0008  0x4004  0x02c            0     0     -
 13        107     0  0x0018  0x4004  0x02c            0     0     -
 14        106     0  0x0017  0x4004  0x02c            0     0     -
 15        105     0  0x0008  0x4004  0x02c            0     0     -
... (48 entries not shown)

L’option -a permet d’afficher toutes les informations SMART :

# smartctl -a /dev/sda

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Number:                       SAMSUNG MZVLW256HEHP-000L7
Serial Number:                      XXXXXXXX
Firmware Version:                   4L7QCXB7
PCI Vendor/Subsystem ID:            0x144d
IEEE OUI Identifier:                0x002538
Total NVM Capacity:                 256 060 514 304 [256 GB]
Unallocated NVM Capacity:           0
Controller ID:                      2
Number of Namespaces:               1
Namespace 1 Size/Capacity:          256 060 514 304 [256 GB]
Namespace 1 Utilization:            208 604 237 824 [208 GB]
Namespace 1 Formatted LBA Size:     512
Local Time is:                      Mon Dec  4 00:16:33 2017 CET
Firmware Updates (0x16):            3 Slots, no Reset required
Optional Admin Commands (0x0017):   Security Format Frmw_DL *Other*
Optional NVM Commands (0x001f):     Comp Wr_Unc DS_Mngmt Wr_Zero Sav/Sel_Feat
Warning  Comp. Temp. Threshold:     69 Celsius
Critical Comp. Temp. Threshold:     72 Celsius

Supported Power States
St Op     Max   Active     Idle   RL RT WL WT  Ent_Lat  Ex_Lat
 0 +     7.60W       -        -    0  0  0  0        0       0
 1 +     6.00W       -        -    1  1  1  1        0       0
 2 +     5.10W       -        -    2  2  2  2        0       0
 3 -   0.0400W       -        -    3  3  3  3      210    1500
 4 -   0.0050W       -        -    4  4  4  4     2200    6000

Supported LBA Sizes (NSID 0x1)
Id Fmt  Data  Metadt  Rel_Perf
 0 +     512       0         0

=== START OF SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x00) Offline data collection activity
                                        was never started.
                                        Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status:      (  23) The self-test routine was aborted by
                                        the host.
Total time to complete Offline 
data collection:                (    1) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:                    (0x75) SMART execute Offline immediate.
                                        No Auto Offline data collection support.
                                        Abort Offline collection upon new
                                        command.
                                        No Offline surface scan supported.
                                        Self-test supported.
                                        Conveyance Self-test supported.
                                        Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003) Saves SMART data before entering
                                        power-saving mode.
                                        Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01) Error logging supported.
                                        General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine 
recommended polling time:        (   1) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:        (   1) minutes.
Conveyance self-test routine
recommended polling time:        (   1) minutes.
SCT capabilities:              (0x003d) SCT Status supported.
                                        SCT Error Recovery Control supported.
                                        SCT Feature Control supported.
                                        SCT Data Table supported.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 5
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0020   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0030   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       49872
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       15
170 Unknown_Attribute       0x0033   100   100   010    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
171 Unknown_Attribute       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
172 Unknown_Attribute       0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
183 Runtime_Bad_Block       0x0030   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       0
184 End-to-End_Error        0x0032   100   100   090    Old_age   Always       -       0
187 Reported_Uncorrect      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       13
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x0030   100   100   000    Old_age   Offline      -       5
225 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       575610
226 Load-in_Time            0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       18829
227 Torq-amp_Count          0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
228 Power-off_Retract_Count 0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       2992332
232 Available_Reservd_Space 0x0033   100   100   010    Pre-fail  Always       -       0
233 Media_Wearout_Indicator 0x0032   082   082   000    Old_age   Always       -       0
241 Total_LBAs_Written      0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       575610
242 Total_LBAs_Read         0x0032   100   100   000    Old_age   Always       -       581199

SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num  Test_Description    Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error
# 1  Short captive       Completed without error       10%     49872         -
# 2  Extended offline    Completed without error       00%     49872         -
# 3  Reserved (0x20)     Completed without error       00%     49872         -
# 4  Reserved (0x20)     Completed without error       10%        14         -
# 5  Reserved (0x20)     Completed without error       10%         4         -
# 6  Reserved (0x20)     Completed without error       10%         4         -
# 7  Vendor (0x58)       Completed without error       10%         4         -

Note: selective self-test log revision number (0) not 1 implies that no selective self-test has ever been run
SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 0
Note: revision number not 1 implies that no selective self-test has ever been run
 SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
    1        0        0  Not_testing
    2        0        0  Not_testing
    3        0        0  Not_testing
    4        0        0  Not_testing
    5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0):
  After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

Si votre disque n’est pas un disque physique mais un volume d’un RAID matériel, il faut préciser le type et le numéro du disque physique voulu :

# smartctl -i /dev/sda -d megaraid,0

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Device Model:     SSDSC2BB480G7R
Serial Number:    XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
LU WWN Device Id: 5 5cd2e4 14d52d0aa
Add. Product Id:  DELL(tm)
Firmware Version: N201DL41
User Capacity:    480,103,981,056 bytes [480 GB]
Sector Sizes:     512 bytes logical, 4096 bytes physical
Rotation Rate:    Solid State Device
Form Factor:      2.5 inches
Device is:        Not in smartctl database [for details use: -P showall]
ATA Version is:   ACS-3 T13/2161-D revision 5
SATA Version is:  SATA 3.1, 6.0 Gb/s (current: 6.0 Gb/s)
Local Time is:    Tue Nov 28 16:27:57 2017 CET
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

Dans certains cas, le contrôleur RAID dispose d’une possibilité de voir le disque au travers d’un module SCSI générique.

# modprobe sg

# smartctl -i /dev/sg0

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family:     Toshiba 3.5" MG03ACAxxx(Y) Enterprise HDD
Device Model:     TOSHIBA MG03ACA100
Serial Number:    XXXXX
LU WWN Device Id: 5 000039 4eb981078
Add. Product Id:  DELL(tm)
Firmware Version: FL1D
User Capacity:    1,000,204,886,016 bytes [1.00 TB]
Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
Rotation Rate:    7200 rpm
Form Factor:      3.5 inches
Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is:   ATA8-ACS (minor revision not indicated)
SATA Version is:  SATA 3.0, 3.0 Gb/s (current: 3.0 Gb/s)
Local Time is:    Fri Dec  1 11:57:19 2017 CET
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

Tester un disque

On peut lancer un test rapide d’un disque :

# smartctl -t short /dev/sda

=== START OF OFFLINE IMMEDIATE AND SELF-TEST SECTION ===
Sending command: "Execute SMART Short self-test routine immediately in off-line mode".
Drive command "Execute SMART Short self-test routine immediately in off-line mode" successful.
Testing has begun.
Please wait 1 minutes for test to complete.
Test will complete after Thu Dec  7 02:51:10 2017

On peut visualiser les résultats du test avec :

# smartctl -l selftest /dev/sda

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num  Test_Description    Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error
# 1  Extended offline    Completed without error       00%     49872         -
# 2  Reserved (0x20)     Completed without error       00%     49872         -
# 3  Reserved (0x20)     Completed without error       10%        14         -
# 4  Reserved (0x20)     Completed without error       10%         4         -
# 5  Reserved (0x20)     Completed without error       10%         4         -
# 6  Vendor (0x58)       Completed without error       10%         4         -

On peut aussi lancer un test long :

# smartctl -t long /dev/sda

Si l’on veut interrompre le test en cours :

# smartctl -X /dev/sda

=== START OF OFFLINE IMMEDIATE AND SELF-TEST SECTION ===
Sending command: "Abort SMART off-line mode self-test routine".
Self-testing aborted!

smartd

On active smartd en listant les périphériques concernés via /etc/default/smartmontools :

enable_smart="/dev/sda /dev/sdb"
start_smartd=yes
smartd_opts="--interval=1800"

Puis on peut personnaliser l’adresse email de réception des alertes via /etc/smartd.conf :

DEVICESCAN -d removable -n standby -m monitoring@example.com -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner

FAQ

Voir https://www.smartmontools.org/wiki/FAQ

Device does not support SMART

Certains disques ne supportent pas SMART. Exemple :

# smartctl -a /dev/sda

Device: ATA      Maxtor 7Y250M0   Version: YAR5
Serial number: XXXXXX
Device type: disk
Local Time is: Thu Dec  7 01:59:43 2017 CET
Device does not support SMART

Error Counter logging not supported

[GLTSD (Global Logging Target Save Disable) set. Enable Save with '-S on']
Device does not support Self Test logging

Support NVME

Par défaut SMART ne surveille pas les disques NVME car le support est jugé instable. On pourra tout de même les surveiller en ajoutant -d nvme dans la configuration.

diff --git a/smartd.conf b/smartd.conf
index 4cdede7..81619c9 100644
--- a/smartd.conf
+++ b/smartd.conf
@@ -18,7 +18,7 @@
 # Directives listed below, which will be applied to all devices that
 # are found.  Most users should comment out DEVICESCAN and explicitly
 # list the devices that they wish to monitor.
-DEVICESCAN -d removable -n standby -m root -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner
+DEVICESCAN -d removable -d nvme -n standby -m root -M exec /usr/share/smartmontools/smartd-runner